Juniper berries, including Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus oxycedrus have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs at multiple sites. J. oxycedrus is not known to grow in Egypt , and neither is Juniperus excelsa , which was found along with J. oxycedrus in the tomb of Tutankhamun .  The berries imported into Egypt may have come from Greece ; the Greeks record using juniper berries as a medicine long before mentioning their use in food.  The Greeks used the berries in many of their Olympics events because of their belief that the berries increased physical stamina in athletes.  The Romans used juniper berries as a cheap domestically produced substitute for the expensive black pepper and long pepper imported from India .  It was also used as an adulterant , as reported in Pliny the Elder 's Natural History : "Pepper is adulterated with juniper berries, which have the property, to a marvellous degree, of assuming the pungency of pepper."  Pliny also incorrectly asserted that black pepper grew on trees that were "very similar in appearance to our junipers".
The ultimate combination is category one. An individual or team with outstanding physical ability, a high skill level, intelligence, and mental toughness would be hard to beat. Olympic gold medalists, FIFA World Cup, Super Bowl, Stanley Cup, World Series, and NBA Finals champions mostly fall into this category. Life would be great for all coaches who have category one athletes year in and year out. However, this is not reality. Even though the goal is to be at category one, one small deviation can mean defeat, and this usually comes down to the mental aspect. Therefore, there is hope for the other categories.