Concentric muscle contractions occur when a muscle shortens during contraction, as in the upward motion when performing a biceps curl. An eccentric contraction occurs when a muscle lengthens with contraction, as in the "negative" or lowering motion of a biceps curl. An example of an isometric (muscle contracts while maintaining constant length) contraction would be pushing against an immovable object. An example of an isokinetic (muscle has constant speed of contraction) occurs with specialized equipment like Cybex machines. Plyometric contractions occur when a muscle rapidly lengthens just prior to contraction - like during repetitive box jumping.
Woo and Buckwalter describe the mechanisms, barriers, and molecular processes involved in ligament and tendon injury and repair.
Water, Chicken, Pork Liver, Whole Grain Corn, Cracked Pearled Barley, Beef By-Products, Soybean Meal, Chicken Liver Flavor, Dried Whey, Soybean Oil, Calcium Carbonate, Iodized Salt, Choline Chloride, vitamins (Vitamin E Supplement, Thiamine Mononitrate, Ascorbic Acid (source of Vitamin C), Niacin Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Biotin, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement, Folic Acid), Iron Oxide color, Potassium Chloride, minerals (Zinc Oxide, Ferrous Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Calcium Iodate), Magnesium Oxide, Beta-Carotene.