Although ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are classified as stimulants, they have different effects on performance. Ten-kilometer run time was decreased with ephedrine supplementation 30 and anaerobic performance was improved 31 ; however, a meta-analysis of eight studies found insufficient evidence to support a performance benefit with ephedrine. 32 Crossover studies have failed to demonstrate an improvement in fatigue 33 or prolonged high-intensity cycling performance 34 with pseudoephedrine ingestion, but one small study did find a decrease in 1,500-meter running time. 35
Increased educational resources are available to at least certain age groups and are now reaching larger numbers of children. The percentage of pre-adolescent athletes who have heard of steroids has increased significantly from 78% in 1989 to 88% in the current survey (p<.05). In 1989, only 50% of respondents had had steroid side effects explained to them. This significantly increased to 64% in the current study (p<.05). Currently, 60% of respondents felt that steroids, even if used carefully, would still harm the athlete compared to 56% in 1989 (p<.05). Furthermore, 65% currently consider steroid use a drug problem compared to 57% in 1989 (p<.05).