Are lipoproteins steroids

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

Follistatin (also known as activin-binding protein) is an autocrine glycoprotein encoded FST gene which is produced in almost all tissues. Its primary function in the body is bioneutralization members of the TGF-β family of proteins, with special focus on activin and paracrine hormones. Follistatin is a potent inhibitor of myostatin. Original follistatin also worked as an inhibitor of activin, which in turn stimulates secretion of follicle stimulating hormone - FSH (activin regulates the growth and differentiation of nearly all cell types, including the gonads, pituitary and skeletal muscle). For this reason, scientists have developed from the original follistatin derived specific follistatin (follistatin-344), which is preferably capable of blocking the effects of myostatin.

Many abusers who inject anabolic steroids may use nonsterile injection techniques or share contaminated needles with other abusers. In addition, some steroid preparations are manufactured illegally under nonsterile conditions. These factors put abusers at risk for acquiring lifethreatening viral infections, such as HIV and hepatitis B and C. Abusers also can develop endocarditis, a bacterial infection that causes a potentially fatal inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. Bacterial infections also can cause pain and abscess formation at injection sites.

Are lipoproteins steroids

are lipoproteins steroids

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