Hydroxylation of steroids by microorganisms

Because steroids are lipophilic, they diffuse easily through the cell membranes, and therefore have a very large distribution volume. In their target tissues, steroids are concentrated by an uptake mechanism which relies on their binding to intracellular proteins (or " receptors ", see below). High concentration of steroids are also found in adipose tissue, although this is not a target for hormone action. In the human male, adipose tissue contains aromatase activity, and seems to be the main source of androgen-derived estrogens found in the circulation. But most of the peripheral metabolism occurs in the liver and to some extent in the kidneys, which are the major sites of hormone inactivation and elimination, or catabolism (see below).

The quantity of diclofenac absorbed through the skin is proportional to the size of the treated area, and depends on both the total dose applied and the degree of skin hydration. After topical application to approximately 400 cm 2 of skin, the extent of systemic exposure as determined by plasma concentration of Voltarol Emulgel Extra Strength 2% w/w Gel (2 applications/day) was equivalent to diclofenac % gel (4 applications/day). The relative bioavailability of diclofenac (AUC ratio) for Voltarol Emulgel Extra Strength 2% w/w Gel versus tablet was % on day 7 (for equivalent diclofenac sodium dose). Absorption was not modified by a moisture and vapour permeable bandage.

Hydroxylation of steroids by microorganisms

hydroxylation of steroids by microorganisms

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