In isolated synaptoneurosomes, Noopept (as well as the endogenous peptide cycloprolylglycine) appear to modulate neuronal membrane potential, causing depolarization but and being able induce hyperpolarization in a calcium-dependent manner (hyperpolarization abolished in calcium-free medium); Noopept was more effective than cycloprolylglycine in this regard but the two were competitive rather than additive.  The researchers noted this effect could be due to blocking calcium channels (noted previously in snail neurons  where 10nM Noopept as well as both Piracetam at 100mM and Vinpocetine at 30mM at inhibiting slow inactivating potassium channels without influencing calcium or fast acting potassium channels  ) and would result in increased excitatory potential of neurons. However, as Noopept is also associated with protection against stroke (a mechanism related to opening potassium channels) a modulatory effect was proposed. 
Minerals, like magnesium and iron, are metal ions which like to attach to other compounds. The compounds to which they attach can affect how well they are absorbed and how available they are for use in the body. An amino acid chelated mineral is one in which a mineral has been chemically attached to an amino acid, and there is evidence that some, but not necessarily all, of these types of compounds may improve mineral absorption. For information about specific chelated amino acids, such as iron bis-glycine, magnesium diglycinate, zinc bis-glycinate, and selenomethionine (a chelate of selenium), see the full answer > >
I’m looking at these bile salts. Well here is my issue. I had my gallbladder removed, also along with ( but not at the same time) spleen, appendix and ALL of my large intestines and a little of some small. Just found out I have gastritis . Now I need to find something that I can take that will help with all of these. I do not want to take something that will make one or more of these issues worse. If anyone knows anything that would help me in anyway, any advise would be greatly appreciated. I am gaining weight for no reasons and I was on the Keto diet. Still gained weight.
Thank you to anyone who has any information that you leave!
Have a brite day,